Bibliography Francis Huxley


1956 Affable Savages – An anthropologist among the Urubu Indians of Brazil. Rupert Hart-Davis, London


1957 The Viking Press, New York.


1957 The Travel Book Club. Hardcover. London.


1957 Scientific Book Club, Hardcover. London.


1958 Prijazni Divljaci (Affable Savages. Translator. Konstantin Milles) Epoha Zagreb.


1960 Amiables Sauvages. Traduit de l’anglais par Monique Lévi-Strauss. Plon, Paris.


1960 The Travel Book Club. Hardcover.


1961 Second Editio. Prijazni Divljaci -Il izdanje. Epoha Zagreb.


1963 Paperback, A Harvest Book 204, London.


1963 Selvagens amávei. um antropologista entre os indios Urubus do Brasil. (Translator. Japi Freire). Companhia Editora Nacional, São Paulo.


1966 Capricorn Books Edition, New York.


1973 Aimables sauvages. Couverture rigide. Terre Humaine. Plon, Paris.


1980 Aimable sauvages. Hardcover second Edition. Terre Humaine. Plon, Paris.


1985 Paperback. Poche. Plon, Paris.


1995 Sheffield Publications, Salem, Wisconsin.


2010 Affable Souvages. Lire F. Huxley aujourd’hui, par Pascal Dibi. Bibliotheque Terre Humane, Plon, Paris.


1964 Peoples of the World. Blandford Press, London. Reprinted, 1971, 1975.


1964 Littlehampton Book Services Ltd, Chester Springs, Pa.


1965 Les peuples de la Terre. Fernand Nathan. Paris.


1966 The Invisibles. Rupert Hart-Davies, London.


1969 The Invisibles – Voodoo Gods in Haiti. First US Edition published by McGraw-Hill. New York.


1973 Tribes of the Amazon Basin in Brazil 1972. (with E.Brooks, R.Fuerst, J.Hemming) Charles Knight & Co. London. Hardcover & Paperback.


1974 Hardcover, Transatlantic Arts Publishing, London.


1974 The Way of The Sacred. Aldus & Jupiter Books, London.


1974 Doubleday and Company. 1st USA edition.


1976 Paperback. A Laurel Edition. Dell Publishing, New York.


1977 Sagrado e o Profano. Duas Faces da Mesma Moeda. tradução de Raul José de Sá Barbosa. Rio de Janeiro. Editora Primo.


1978 Symbolen Van Het Mysterie. Amsterdam Boek.


1980 Paperback. A Star Book, W.H. Allen & Co. Ltd. London


1989 Hardcover. Bloomsbury Books. London.


1976 The Raven and the Writing Desk. Thames and Hudson. London.


1976 Harper & Row, Publishers. New York.


1979 The Dragon – Nature of spirit, spirit of nature. Thames and Hudson. London.


1979 Collier Books, Macmillan, Inc., New York & Canada.


1982 Japanese Edition. Heibonsha. Tokio.


1989 El dragón . naturaleza del espíritu, espíritu de la naturaleza. Debate. Madrid. 1992, 1994 reprints.


1989 Mitos Dioses Misterios – El Dragon. Mercado Libre. ediciones del prado, Argentina & Mexico. Hardcover.


1997 Dragão – Natureza do Espírito, Espírito da Natureza. Rio de Janeiro. Del Prado.


1990 The Eye – The Seer and the Seen. Thames and Hudson. London.


1992 L’Oeil – Mythes et metamorphoses. Seuil. Paris.


1992 Me no sekai gekijō . seisei o utsusu kagami. Japanese Edition, Translation by Hiroshi Takayama. Heibonsha. Tokio.


2001 Shamans Trough Time – 500 Years on the Path to Knowledge. (Ed.with J.Narby) J.P.Tarcher /Putnam, New York. / Thames & Hudson. London.


2002 Chamanes - Cinq cents ans sur la piste du savoir. Editions Albin Michel. Paris.


2005 Chamanes a través de los tiempos. Quinientos años en la senda del conocimiento. Biblioteca de la Nueva Conciencia. Barcelona.


2005 Samanok. Hungarian Translation. Budapest. General Press Kiado.


2009 Anthologie du chamanisme. Cinq cents ans sur la piste du savoir. Editions Albin Michel. Paris.


2017 Chuan yue shi guang de Saman . tong wang zhi shi de wu bai nian zhi lü. Translation by Jie Yuan. Chines. Bejing.


2018 Anthologie du chamanisme. Reissue, A.M. ESP.LIBRE.


1962 Africa Before the White Man. Translated from the French by Francis Huxley.    Labouret, Henri (1946) L ‘Afrique precoloniale. New York. Walker
Published simultaneously in Canada by George J. McLeod, Limited, Toronto.

1963 Reprint Hardcover.

1964 A Sun book paperback. Walker Publisher.


1963 The Origins of Life. Translated from the French by Francis Huxley. Jules Carles (1950) Les origines de la vie. New York. Walker and Company.
Published simultaneously in Canada by George J. McLeod, Limited, Toronto.


Unpublished Book Manuscripts (Francis Huxley Archive).

1957 Darwin Film. Planned together with Ellen Huxley for National Educational TV.


1965 Body and Mind in Anthropology.


1977 Embryos and Ancestors.


1978 / 2003 Forty Two.


1988 Aldous – A film about the life of Aldous Huxley (with Mary Pjerrou).


1997 The Mutual Self.


1998 A Huxley family album. Pb. 23


Book Chapters

1961 Marginal Lands of the Mind. In. The Humanist Frame, Ed. Julian Huxley, pp.169-179, George Allen& Unwin. London.


1961 States of Suggestibility. Conference on Parapsychology and Psychedelics (Nov.1958, New York) Parapsychology Foundation, Inc. The Colonial Press. Clinton. Mass, pp.19-21.


1961 Increases in Awareness and Suggestibility. Conference on Parapsychology and Psychedelics (July1959, St. Paul de Vence, Fr) Parapsychology Foundation, Inc. The Colonial Press, Clinton, Mass. Pp. 72-73.


1962 Who and why? In N. Mitchinson (Ed.), What is the human race up to? pp. 273–288. London. Victor Gollancz.


1963 The Religious significance of experience under hallucinogenic drugs. In. Hallucinogenic Drugs and Their Psychotherapeutic Use. Ed. Crocket, R. Charles C.Thomas. Springfield, pp.174-178


1967 Anthropology and ESP. In. Science and ESP, Ed. J. R. Smythies. pp.281- 302 Routledge and Kegan Paul. London.


1970 Which May Never Have Existed. In. Claude Lévi-Strauss –The Anthropologist As Hero. Ed. Hayes E.N., pp.61-69. M.I.T. Press. Cambridge. Massachusetts


1971 Anthropologe und Psychologe im Kreuzverkehr – Francis Huxley und Max Lüscher. In. Rauschmittel und Süchtigkeit, pp.133-9, Herbert Lang. Bern.


1971 Experimente mit Halluzinogenen. In. Rauschmittel und Süchtigkeit, pp. 89-94 Herbert Lang. Bern.


1972 How do we feel about primitive people? In G. E. King (Hrsg.), Conflict and harmony: a source-book of man in his environment (S. 250–251). London: G. Philip.


1972 The question of human conservation. In E. E. Evans-Pritchard (Hrsg.), Peoples of the earth (Bd.S. 10–13). Danbury, Conn.: Danbury Press.


1972 Voodoo cultists – Haiti. In F. Henriques (Hrsg.), Peoples of the earth (Bd. 5, S. 56–63). Danbury, Conn.: Danbury Press.


1974 Die Frage der Erhaltung der menschlichen Kulturen. In P. Rivière (Hrsg.), Südamerika. (Reihe Atlantis – Die Völker der Welt, S. 9–10). Zürich: Europa Verlag. 


1977 The Body and the Play within the Play. In J. Blacking (Ed.) The anthropology of the body. Academic Press. London, pp. 29-38


1982 Beschouwingen bij de Werking van de P.A.-London. In. E. Pennen (Ed.) Stratategie Van De Kleinschaligheid. K.U. Leven. P. 148-153.


1985 Psychoanalysis and Anthropology. In. Freud and The Humanities. (Ed.) P.Horden, pp.130-151, Duckworth. London.


1988 Der Wodu-Kult auf Haiti. In E. Evans-Pritchard (Hrsg.), Westindien, Atlantische Inseln und Arktis (Reihe Atlantis – Die Völker der Welt, S. 56–63). Zürich: Atlantis-Verlag. 


2005 Shamanism, Healing and R. D. Laing. In. R. D. Laing – Contemporary Perspective, Ed. Raschid, S. pp.179-198, Free Association Books. London.


2007 Shamans Through Time. Tricksters, Healers, Voodoo Priests and Anthropologist (with J. Narby & J. Mohawk) In. J. P. Harpignies( (Ed.) Visionary Plant Consciousness. The Shamanic Teachings of the Plant World. Rochester. Park Street Press, pp. 24-38.


2012 The Liberating Shaman of Kingsley Hall. In. Itten, Th & Young, C. (Ed) R.D.Laing 50 years since The Divided Self. PCCS Books. Ross-on Wye, pp.283-285.


Articles (incomplete)

1947 Nesting and breeding habits. Birds of Jan Mayen. Oxford goes Exploring. The Times, 15. Dezember, 5.


1949 The Oxford Viewpoint Journal, by Francis Huxley, Peter Heyworth Bernard Smith.


1949 Exploration in Gambia. The Geographical Magazine Vol. 22, No. 7 (1949) 270-7.


1951 Os indios do Maranhao e do Pará. Palavras de um etnologo – Hisotri as de um indio loiro e um ataque nao realizado. A Gazeta, Sao Paulo. 21.12.


1951 Resenha de “A Organização Social dos Tupinambá”. Sociologia, 13 (3): 289-297.


1952 The Affaire Guajaja. World Review, August, pp. 35-47.


1953 In the Brazilian Jungle. The Geographical Magazine. Vo. 25, No. 11 (1953) Pp.553-563.


1955 The Rawdon Syrinx. Liverpool bulletin. 5 / 1955, 1/2, 17.


1959 / 1960 Charles Darwin – Life and Habit. American Scholar, Vol.29, 30, No. 4, 1,


1959 The miraculous virgin of Guadalupe. International Journal of Parapsychology, 1, 19-29.


1960 Substance and Method in Zen Practice. Essay in International Journal of Parapsychology Vol. II, No. 2, Spring 1960.


1963 Haiti Chérie. The Geographical Magazine. Vol. 36, No. 2, pp.69-83.


1966 The Body and the Mind. R. D. Laing Collection, Special Collection Dept. Univ. Glasgow Library, MS Laing L 226.


1966 The ritual of Voodoo and the symbolism of the body. Philosophical Transactions of RS London, Vol251, No. 772, pp. 423-27.


1967 Stop / Go with LSD – Behind every work of art lies the human body. The Geographical Magazine. Vol. 40, No. Pp. 17-18 / 99.


1970 An Antidote to Lévi-Strauss. Encounter Vol. 34, No.5, May, pp. 71-77.


1972 Madness and Mysticism - Comments. In. Contact, Nr.38, Summer 1972, Pp.12-14, Univ. Edinburg


1972 Horoscope. Planete, 3(April/Mai).


1974 Where the Map is the Territory. In Theoria to Theory, Vol 8, No 1, pp. 289-301.


1980 Charles Darwin – Life and Habit. Part I & II. Theoria to Theory.Vol. 14, pp. 27- 42, 107-124.


1992 World Culture. International Synergy Journal, Santa Fe. Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 5-10p


1993 Und redet wie ein Drache. Manuskripte – Zeitschrift für Literatur. 33. Jg. Heft 121, S. 50-58p



1949 The Social Mechanism of a South American Tribe. An account of marriage, war and exchange among the Tupi-Guarani of Brazil, with comparisons drawn from South American Tribes. Thesis presented for the degree of Bachelor of Science at the University of Oxford. Unpublished. FHA


Poems (incomplete)

1950 Marco Polo. World Review, Oct. p.50.


1950 Poem. World Review, Oct. p. 30.



1993 Foreword – In. Star Warrior, the Story of Swiftdeer. Bear & Company. Rochester.


1997 Foreword. In. A. Getty, A sense of the sacred. Pp.VI–VIII. Dallas, TX. Taylor Publishing.


1998 Praise for The Cosmic Serpent by Jeremy Narby. J.P. Tarcher /Putnam. New York.


1999 “Aldous”. In. Aldous Huxley recollected, by Dunaway, D., Preface pp. v-xiii, Alta Mira Press, Sage. Walnut Creek.


1999 Foreword to “Dear Juliette” – Letters of May Sarton to Juliette Huxley. Ed. Susan Sherman. W.W. Norton & Company. New York, pp. 13-16.


Reviews (incomplete)

1955 The Taming of the Demons. African Folktales and Sculpture, by Paul Radin, Elinore Marvel, and James Johnson Sweeney. Encounter, April, pp. 83-84.


1955 The Endless Worm. The Return of the King, by J.R.R. Tolkien. The New Statesman and Nation, 50, 5. Nov. pp. 587-588.


1960 Frazer within the Bloody Wood. The Golden Bough, by J.G. Frazer. The New Statesman, 16.4., p. 561.


1961 Clinical Theology, by Frank Lake. DLT. Contact No.19, Jan. pp.30-32.


1963 All done with mirrors. The Ambidextrous Universe, by Martin Gardner. Allan Lane. The New Statesman, 40.


1963 Light through darkness, by Henry Michaux. The New Statesman, No.31.


1963 Phallic fungus. The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross, by John Allegro. Hodder & Stoughton. New Society, pp.17-18.


1964 Destroyer of the mind. Light Through Darkness, by Henri Michaux. The Observer, Feb 9, p. 27.


1976 Ay, There's the Rub. Life After Death, by Arnold Toynbee and Arthur Koestler. The New Statesman, August 6, p. 183.


1976 The Gene Machine. Who Do You Think You Are? by Oliver Gillie. The New Statesman, 19. Nov., pp. 716-717.


1977 Prison of thought. Discipline and Punish, by Michel Foucault. Nov 24, p. 16.


1978 A shaman and his circus. The Origin of Table Manners, by Claude Lévi-Strauss. The Guardian, 2. Nov. p. 9.


1978 Jung and some Freuds. Jung. Man and Myth, by Vincent Brome. Sigmund Freud. His life in pictures and words, complied by Ernst Freud, Luci Freud and Ilse Grubrich-Simitis. The Guardian Nov 30, p. 17.


1979 This holy terror. The History of Sexuality, by Michael Foucault. The Sadeian Woman, by Angela Carter. The Guardian mar 29, p. 10 .


1978 Dr. Dodgson and Mr. Carroll. The Letters of Lewis Carroll, edited by Morton Cohen, 2. Vols. The Guardian, Sep 13, p. 10.


1978 On the fringe. Natural Medicine, by Brian Inglis. The Guardian Nov 1.


1978 Married to the Sphinx. Freud, Biologist of The Mind, by Frank J. Sulloway. Psychoanalytic Politics, by Sherry Turkle. The Guardian Dec, p. 7.


1980 A view of dark places. The Return of Eva Peron. V.S. Naipaul. The Guardian,
Jun 26, p. 9.


1980 Beastly welfare. Great Zoos and The World, Their Origin and Significance, ed. by Lord Zuckermann. Sunday Times. June 1.


1980 Thirsting for the absolute. Bricks to Babel by Arthur Koestler. Guardian Weekly 30.11.


1981 One myth only. The Naked Man. Introduction to a Science of Mythology, volume 4, by Claude Lévi-Strauss. The Guardian Sep 24, p. 16.


1981 Our own disease. The Diseases of Civilisation, by Brian Inglis. The Guardian, Nov 5, p. 18.


1981 A wonderland of books. Edward Giuliano. Lewis Carroll. An Annotated International Bibliography 1960-77. Harvester Press. TLS, Nov. p.1334.


1982 Anti-Psychiatry and other disorders. Psycho Politics, by Peter Sedgwick. The Guardian, Jan 28, p. 19.


1982 No such thing. The Sexual Fix, by Stephen Heath. Jun 17, p. 8.


1983 Raining cats and dogs. Living Wonders, by John Michell and Robert J. M. Rickard. The Spectator 8 Jan. p 20.


1983 Defender of the faith. Ernest Jones. Freud’s Alter Ego, by Vincent Brome. The Guardian Feb 3, p. 10.


1983 Story telling in Samoa. Margret Mead and Samoa, by Derek Freeman. The Guardian Mar 3, p.10.


1983 In two Minds. A Biography of Jonathan Miller. Guardian, 14. April.


1984 Anthropology of joy and woe. The human Cycle, by Colin. M. Turnbull. The Guardian, Mar 22, p.19.


1984 Black blood legacy. The Haunted Mind, by Hallam Tennyson. The Guardian, May 17, p. 18.


1984 Good for the soul. The Way of the Animal Powers. Vol. 1 of the Historical Atlas of World Mythology, by Joseph Campbell. The Guardian, Jul 5, p. 19.



1989 Liberating Shaman of Kingsley Hall. R.D. Laing Obituary, The Guardian, 25. August.



1967 Esmeralda Fufluns. A story for children and grown-ups only written and told by F.H. Music by Julian Hayter. A Dragon Record.

Broadcasting (not conclusive)

1948 Rocks and Birds of Jan Mayen. Science Survey. BBC Home Service. 29. Jan.


1948 Oxford University Gambia Expedition. Amateur film 1948, 45 mins. Silent.


1952 A Game of Hide and Seek. Three talks. BBC Home Service. 22. April, 29. April, 6. May.


1954 Ghosts, Gods and Tortoises. BBC North of England Home Services. 14. December.


1955 Snakes, Spells and Dolphins. BBC North of England Home Services. 17. October.


1955 Jaguars in Brazilian Jungle. BBC Home Service. 16. November.


1960 Recording by Francis Huxley on visit to Bank Street Unitarian Church“, 9.7.1960, FH „Summary of Sunday morning church observations, 1960 compared ...


1962 Perspective – Francis Huxley, anthropologist discusses some taboos of death. BBC February 15th 13.30.


1963 Voodoo and Illness. BBC European English Services. 6. May.


1976 English, Sound, Other sound edition. Other worlds [sound recording] / compiled and presented by Peter Fry and Malcolm Long for ABC Special Projects. 6 Other World. Sydney. Australian Broadcasting Commission.


Myth, magic and mystery / compiled and presented by Peter Fry and Malcolm Long for ABC Special Projects. Eliade, Mircea, 1907-1986. Francis Huxley and Nevill Drury.


1981 BBC Woman’s Hour. 15. February 1981, 11.15. Conversation with an Anthropologist.


1985 Tantra of Gyüto. sacred rituals of Tibet. A film by Sheldon Rochlin and Mark Elliott. Narrated by Francis Huxley and the Dalai Lama. (Video recording) First issued by Allied ... Artists and Snow Lion Communications as motion picture 1974. Narrators, Francis Huxley, Dalai Lama.


Interviews and Press

1951 Estuado os indios barsileiros. Estudo social e anthropologico – Claracoes do sr. Francis Huxley. “A Gazeta”, São Paulo, 1-3-51.


1951 FOLHA VESPERTINA: Misterio No Paradeiro do Cientista Huxley. Belem - Pará, 14.11.1951.


1951 Os indios do Maranhao e do Para – Fala-nos Francis Huxley. A GAZETA – Sao Paulo 21.12.1951.


1987 Töten wir Mutter Erde? Francis Huxley in St. Gallen. Ostschweizer AZ, 30. Juni, by R. Gaston Sutter.


1987 Das Falsche Selbst. Zur Anthropologie von Francis Huxley, by Theodor Itten. St. Galler Tagblatt Fri 3. Juli, Horizonte, p. 4.


1987 Der Natur entfremdeter Mensch. Francis Huxley, ein Wissenschaftler und Mystiker gegen die Umweltzerstörung. Ostschweizer AZ, by Roger Gaston Sutter. Fri 10 Juli.


1989 Was ist Wahnsinn? Ronald Laing-Gedenkveranstaltung mit Francis Huxley. St. Gallen Tagblatt, Kultur, by Peter Surber. Fri 22. Sept. III/3.


1991 Profile. Faces behind Ideas. Francis Huxley & Adele Getty. International Synergy Institute. Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 3 + 7.


1994 Francis Huxley. In The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (S. 178). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.


Reviews of Francis Huxley books

Affable Savages

1956 In the Jungle, by Harold Nicolson. Observer. 23.12.


1957 Visitor Finds Brazil Indians Affable Lot, by Max Herzberg.


1957 Other new Books. Affable Savages, by Raymond Mortimer. Sunday Times.


1957 Mr. Huxley Reports on the Urubus, by H.C. Brearley.


1957 ‘Savages’ Fine Tale. L.A. Mirror News. 18.2.


1957 Affable Savages, by Charles Wagley. Nat. Hist. Magazine, Feb.


1957 Affable Savages. The New Yorker, 16.2.


1957 Under the Blue Derby. Time, 18.2.


1957 Affable Savages. The New Yorker, 16.2.,


1957 The Urubus, Tireless Jungle Gossips, by Edward A. Bloom. Providence Sunday Journal 17.2.


1957 Lessons in Civilization, by Wilton M. Krogman. Chicago Sunday Tribune, Magazine of Books, Part 4 - p. 3.


1957 Amorous Cannnibals, by Burns Singer. Encounter, Books, April, p.77-8.


1957 Noble Savages, by A. V, Coton, The Spectator, 22 Feb. p.36.


1958 Affable Savages: An Anthropologist Among the Urubu Indians of Brazil, by Allan R. Holmberg. American Anthropologist, 60, 1958, pp. 388-389.


1961 (after French first Edition in 1960)


1961 L’homme face à sa raison d’être. Dernière heure d’Alger, 2 January.


1961 Je Reviens D’Eldorado, by Kleber Haedens. L’Intransigeant, 11 January.


1961 Séjour Parmi Les Primitifs, by I.G. Progrès Égyptien, 17 January.


1961 Libertinge Urubu, by Robert Jaulin. Lettres Nouvelles, April.


1961 Naguère encore ils étaient cruels,by Roger Teneze. Voix du Nord, May.


1961 Un Idien sait être un Sauvage, san pour autant manquer de principes, by Dr. J. Petitot. Le Génie medical, May.


The Invisibles

1966 Among Black Magicians, by H.D. Ziman. 11. April.


1966 Close-up of voodoo priests seen by a scientist. The Times. 14.7.


1966 Voodoo. TLS, 18.8.


1966 In search of voodoo, by Geoffrey Gorer.


1968 Mr. Huxley‘s tape-recorder approach. Kirkus Review. Feb. 1.


1970 Voodoo Gods in Haiti. Francis Huxley, Erika Bourguignon. American Anthropologist Volume 72, Issue 2, April 1970, P. 415-17.


Esmeralda Fufluns

1967 Games that dragon play. Sunday Times December 12.


The Way of The Sacred

1974 Multi-Faith, by R.L.R. Church Times. 3.11.


1974 Rites of Man, by Philip Toynbee. Observer. 22.12.


1974 For Seekers, by Maurice Richardson. New Statesman. 27.12. p. 938.


1974 Rites for a reassembling God, by I.M. Lewis. TLS 14.2., p. 173.


1977 The oldest most ancient truths of humanity, by Andrew Feldmar. What’s On.
Jan 13. p. 37.


The Raven and the Writing Desk

1976 Flamingos and Mustard, by Geoffrey Grigson. The Guardian, 25.11., p.13.


1976 The Liddell Riddle, by Eric Korn. The New Statesman, December 3, pp. 802-803.


1977 Only Connect, by Edward de Bono. The Spectator 8 Jan, p. 23.


1977 A Ceremony of Carrolls, by Peter Heath. Virginia Quarterly Review, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 534-540.


1977 Lewis Carroll. various fits, by Brian Alderson. The Times, 17.2.


1977 The Nonsense Game, by J.S. Atherton. TLS, 25.2., p. 217.


1978 Jerome Bump, Univ. Of Texas at Austin ; Victorian Studies, Vol. 21, No. 4 pp.521-523.


1978 James R. Kincaid, Univ. Colorado ; Nineteenth-Century Fiction Vol. 33, p. 272-276.


The Dragon

1979 Dragon Power, by Peter Redgrove. The Guardian Oct 23.


1979 The Dragon, by Gabriel Wedmore. Journal of Geomancy vol. 4 no. 1, October.


The Eye

(No reviews discovered)


Shamans Trough Time

2001 Reviewed by Lauren Russel, Evergreen Monthly, October.


2001 Reviewed by Ian S. MacIntosh, Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine.


2002 Sur la piste du savoir Chamanique. Patrik Dasen. Le Courrier, Samedi 6. April, p. 20.


2004 Black mass observation. Shoel Stadlen. TLS July 30.